Tips for OPW aspirants …

With summer approaching, the OPW ( comes up with new projects and organisations giving  wonderful opportunities to women to explore open source world. First timers can be quite confused how to proceed and what to do. Here is a small guide I hope will be useful to all.

Contribution_-_FLOSS_Outreach_Program_for_Women (1)

Start Early

The key to success is starting early. This is very important as things in open source projects can be quite alien to you and might require a lot of time to understand. Even solving bugs sometimes can be difficult if one is an amateur in that area/language. Starting early will help you to take your time and not cramp things in the last minute. This will also increase the possibility of your acceptance. Make sure you start with couple of organisations you are interested in and finally narrow it down to one when you are confident. You can also apply for more than one organisation too.

Ask Questions 

It is very important to ask questions whenever in doubt even though it may seem quite silly to you or the person answering. Nobody expects you to know everything when you enter. The people in these organisations are very friendly and will patiently answer your doubts. This will also help mentors to understand to your progress. It will build a good relationship with your mentors as they are the people who will be guiding you all along your project. But remember, don’t ask to ask. Do not ask questions like : ” Hey, I am having some problem with the code. Can somebody help me”. Ask the right questions. Be specific of what your problem is.

Choose your domain

Choose the project which is interesting to you. If you feel it is a burden, then it is not what you want to do. Go through the prerequisites and see what match with your skill list.There are many interesting projects which come up every year from coding to documentation. You can come up with your own proposal too. If you find a project interesting, you can try even if you don’t have the required skills. It might be difficult initially but it is worth learning. Trust me!! Where better than internships to learn new things. But you don’t want to miss out the fun element.

Solve bugs or build applications

Solve bugs which are generally put up in the issues page, which every organisation has. Or build an application useful for the project. These are just to understand that you have sufficient knowledge of the domain and the project. Add your past work and experience to your application.

Be ethical

It is VERY important to behave properly. Many people around the world would be working in these organisations along with you. A sense of proper behavior is expected of everyone. NO slang, foul language is allowed. There is a lot of info about ethics of opensource in the internet which you can . Be respectful to your peers and mentors.

Mentors are humans too

Mentors are just like you, contributing along with various other activities in their life. Be patient if your mentor doesn’t reply immediately. They will surely get back to you.

Be determined and work hard

Finally it is your determination and hard work which will decide your acceptance. Be focused and spend quality amount of time on your application. You will definitely get through it.

These are useful if you are applying for GSOC too. If your organisation is participating in both OPW and GSOC you can apply for both. You can later discuss with your mentor on which to choose. So all the best for all the aspirants. Hope you have a wonderful summer ahead !!


Ciphers ??

Hey there .

Its been a long weekend and finally I am here with my second blog in which , as I promised , I will be talking about ciphers . Yayy 😀 … okay, not so cool yet !!

Almost everyone knows what’s a cipher. Lots of sci-fi movies and books have been written on this topic. For example, the very famous Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown where Robert Langdon ( played by the awesome Tom Hanks in the movie 😀 ) goes after solving a cryptic message.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cipher3                                                      The very famous Jefferson’s cipher

Let’s get to the boring stuff behind ciphers. Just Kidding !! It starts to get even more interesting now.

What’s a cipher ?

If we go by the definition of Wikipedia, it is an algorithm for performing encryption and decryption. In simpler words, it follows a series of steps to encode the data and also decode it. Encoding and decoding is something we all might be familiar with. Remember the secret messages we passed to our hands filled with weird symbols  or the coded language we came up with ? Yep. Exactly that !! The method in which we coded or decoded the messages is nothing but a cipher.

We have a series of steps to encode the data into something cryptic and decode it with a similar method. In the case of the secret messages, it used to be some symbols representing the letters of the alphabet. Something like this, I guess :


Well, ours was more filled with hearts, bows, and smileys ;). Anyways, this is a perfect example of a simple cipher. Now if we have a message which needs to be sent secretly, we transform the message as per our coded language and send it. Simple!! ( Not so simple actually. Why? That’s a completely different discussion for another post.)

Another simple example could be a substitution cipher. For example, when we encrypt a message by replacing all the letters by their second successive letter. A will be replaced by C, B by D, and so on [Encoding]

So a message like ” Hi what’s up ?” can be “Jk yjcv’u wr?”. Totally meaningless if you try to read it plainly. But the “real” message is hidden in the crypt message or the “cipher text”. Now, if the person on the other end wants to decode it he just needs to substitute all the letters with their second predecessor. [Decoding]

Where does cipher come in this ?

The job of a cipher is to encode or decode the data correctly and safely. Why correctly ? Of course, the other person shouldn’t end up getting the wrong message now , right? It could be disastrous if a country planned to send the information to some secret base about a missile destination and it ended up in the wrong place ?? Scary. Yeah, I watch a lot of sci-fi 😛

Why safety? Now, you don’t want the person who is passing you secret message to your friend to know what it means. Attacks are an important way to understand the vulnerabilities of the cipher which we will see later.

Cryptography :

This whole process comes under something known as CRYPTOGRAPHY. It forms a major branch of Mathematics. This OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAhas a long history dating back to Greeks and Egyptians. ( Hey, there were always spies , weren’t they? )  Most of them are called classical as they relied mostly on using pen and paper. Later on came complex machines and today we are using computers to encrypt data. The cryptography has had quite a mark in the history of the world. Breaking the German naval codes, which were thought to be unbreakable, in World War II played an important role in shaping the war.                                                                                                                                                                      Modern cryptography has reached new heights and electronics are being used to perform encryption and decryption on large data at a great speed. New and complex algorithms are being designed that turns data into digital gibberish using long keys efficiently. Attempts are being made to reduce the possibility of attacks on the algorithms by avoiding weaknesses in the method. AES, Blowfish, Twofish, variants of DES called triple DES are all examples of modern symmetric ciphers. The general function of all these ciphers is to break down message into chunks and encrypt each chunk with the help of a key, known to only the end persons, and decrypt using the same key. Asymmetric ciphers are slightly different relying on two keys one public and other private for the function.

On the whole, cryptography and ciphers offer a great opportunity for exploration and inventions. Work is going on to come up with newer algorithms with less vulnerabilities and greater accuracy.

That’s it for this post. If you find this interesting, I encourage you to explore and learn more about this. I am working on three algorithms called CAST128, Camellia and Twofish. I remind you I am still exploring the field of cryptography and if there is any naivety in the post, please excuse me as I am trying my best to share whatever I am learning in a proper manner. I will come up with next blog in a few days which will focus on basics of some modern ciphers, mainly symmetric ciphers. I end with this final picture :


Hope you all have a good week. Take care !! Until next time, Byee 😀

Disclaimer : I do not own any of the pictures included in this post. 😛  

Blogging for the first time …

“I was nervous. Like an ice-cube, I just froze up. Then I melted in some strange guy’s drink.”
Jarod Kintz, The Titanic would never have sunk if it were made out of a sink.

My feeling when I first heard that I was supposed to publish a blog every week as a part of my internship. I hated the idea of writing and postponed it for weeks , much to the dismay of my mom who found it difficult to understand that I couldn’t come up with a few sentences about my activities (^_^;). ( I can read a thousand page book on politics of china easily than write a blog !! )

So, here I am to share my experiences and knowledge while hopefully learn something along the way. Let me tell you where this all started. Last month, I got selected for the OPW – Outreach Program for Women internship as a part of which I will be working for the next two months with Ffmpeg on Symmetric block ciphers and optimization. I was very happy when I first got to know that I was selected as it has always been my dream to contribute to open source and hopefully be a full-time part of it.

Looking at others’ work contribution and the level of expertise , I was initially quite scared to even make an attempt. My first attempt had gone wrong terribly with my OS crashing 6 times or so !! . But this time I made up my mind that I will succeed and started going through the organisations a month ahead of the application deadline. I consider myself to be very lucky that I came across Ffmpeg as it had the very project I was most comfortable in. 😀 I am well versed with c, c++ and very much interested in cryptography and security. I got to meet the sweetest mentor ever, Giorgio , who was very patient and understanding right from the first day. Then I sent a patch as a qualification task, completed my application and finally got selected !

My work for the three months is mostly to add twofish, camellia and cast 128 algorithms to the library of ffmpeg. I am almost done with cast 128 and camellia. I am planning to publish few blogs on the basics of ciphers in the next couple of days. Although I am just an amateur in the field of cryptology, I hope I will be able to share and learn along the way. That’s it for this one. I am glad that you have kept up with my blabber which I guess was quite boring !! ( I felt the same while writing 😉 ) . Nevertheless, I will try to learn to blog better too. ( I am thinking to take up a course on blogging , what say ? 😛 ) Finally, a very happy and a prosperous new year to all of you.